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Architectural design[ edit ] Floorplan of Circus Maximus.
This design is typical of Roman circuses. The performance space of the Roman circus was normally, despite its name, an oblong rectangle of two linear sections of race trackseparated by a median strip running along the length of about two thirds the track, joined at one end with a semicircular section and at the other end with an undivided section of track closed in most cases by a distinctive starting gate known as the carceresthereby creating a circuit for the races.
The Circus of Maxentius epitomises the design. The median strip was called the spina and usually featured ornate columns, statues and commemorative obelisks. The turning points on either end of the spina were usually marked by conical poles, called the metae singular: One circus, that at Antinopolis Egyptdisplays a distinct gap of some 50m between the carceres and the start of the ascending seating where there is apparently no structure.
This appears to be an exception. The great majority of circuses fit the description above. Those that do not display two different variations: These latter circuses are normally small Nicopolis Greece and Aphrodisias Turkeyand should probably The circus maximus considered stadiums.
There are similar buildings, called stadiawhich were used for Greek style athletics. These buildings were similar in design but typically smaller than circuses; however, the distinction is not always clear. An example of this type is the Stadium of Domitian.
Dates[ edit ] Differently from other major Roman structures circuses frequently evolved over long periods of time from a simple track in a field, through generations of wooden seating structures frequently destroyed by fire or rotbefore they finally began to be converted to stone.
Although circuses such as the Circus Maximus Italy may have existed in some form from as early as around BC, circuses were mainly constructed during the years between BC and AD. Other dimensions, such as the external dimensions of the structure may vary considerably depending on the location, the site, and on specific architectural characteristics.
The simplest comparative measurement of a circus is its track length. This is the most easily measured dimension, as it only requires small excavations at either end of the centreline.
It is very probable that this can be done even when the circus is buried under subsequent constructions. Track lengths may vary from the m of the circus at Gerasa Jordanto the m of the Circus Maximus Italy. The alternative comparative dimension is that of seating capacity.
This is much more complex to measure as it requires that the dimensions of the original vertical and horizontal extent of the inclined seating be re-established. In many cases the full structure of the inclined seating has been destroyed beyond the point where this can be measured, or at the least would require a great deal more excavation than that required for the measurement of the track length.
Seating capacity may vary from around 15, people at Gerasa Jordantoat the Circus Maximus Italy. Orientation[ edit ] Circuses do not appear to have been constructed with any special compass orientation.
Those that are well identified can be found with their round ends oriented around the compass. Gerasa Jordan ; NE. Antinopolis Egypt ; E. Circus of Maxentius Italy ; SE. Circus Maximus Italy ; S.
Tyrus Lebanon ; SW. Gortyn Greece ; W. Circus of Nero Italy. Relative location[ edit ] Circuses can be found at three distinct locations relative to the towns to which they belong: Gerasa Jordan cmand Leptis Magna Libya 1.
Rome, Sirmium Serbia and Tarraco Spain. Carceres[ edit ] The carceres, or starting gates, had a distinctive, slanted, slightly curved, plan form, designed to compensate for what would otherwise be significant differences in the distances from the individual starting gates to the start of the first section of straight track on the right hand side of the spina as seen from the carceres.
The carceres were designed for the races to be run round the spina in an anticlockwise direction. The form of the carceres appears to have been standardised throughout the Roman world.Havoc is Circus Maximus highly anticipated fourth studio album and one that will certainly make a huge impact on the Progressive Metal scene..
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The Circus Maximus was a chariot racetrack in Rome first constructed in the 6th century BCE. The Circus was also used for other public events such.
Circus Maximus Design and Description The Circus Maximus was first built by Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth Etruscan ruler of Rome cBC. Various improvements were made to the design of the massive arena which was magnificently adorned. The Circus Maximus was the largest stadium in ancient Rome.
Popular chariot races were held here for almost a millennium. At one point the Circus could seat , people, one quarter of Rome's population.
A fire in 31 BC, the first of three, destroyed the wooden structure. It was rebuilt by.
The Circus Maximus, located in the valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills, is the oldest and largest public space in Rome and legend says that the Circus was originally laid out in the 6th century BCE by the first Roman kings, although, it first took on its distinctive shape under Julius Caesar.