Agence France Press reported in Novembercovering an article from the famous investigative journalist, Seymour Hersh. It is not clear at this time why there would be such discrepancy between two presumably close intelligent services, the CIA and Mossad. A similar plan by Israel not using tactical nuclear weapons, however was created one year earlierthe same authors at the Sunday Times had reported.
Frederick saw himself not as the heir to a compromise but as a restorer of the Romano-Carolingian heritage… Early years.
The announcement of his election, which he sent to Pope Eugenius IIImade it plain that Frederick I was not ready to recognize the preeminence over the emperors that the popes had won during the quarrel over the right of investiture of bishops and abbots.
Frederick, moreover, filled several vacant episcopal sees, thereby violating the Concordat of Worms of Nevertheless, he was to learn that he could not prevail against the papacy as easily as the earlier emperors, Otto I and Henry IIIhad done because the political balance of the West had changed.
Under the powerful emperor Manuel I Comnenusthe Byzantine Empire had grown to be a political factor in the Mediterranean and in Italy. The cities of the Lombardswhich had been little more than a nuisance to the earlier emperors, had now become more powerful.
Frederick started his struggle for the old goal of the predominance of the Empire over the European monarchies with great political skill. Frederick promised not to make peace with the Roman commune, headed by Arnold whom he hanged or with the Normans without the agreement of the Pope.
He also promised not to concede any Italian land to the Byzantine Emperor and, finally, to maintain the position of the papacy honor papatus. Eugenius III, on his part, promised that Frederick would receive the imperial crown and that the rights of the empire would be maintained.
When Manuel of Byzantium offered Frederick a Byzantine princess as wife and attempted to induce him to fight against the Norman kingdom, Frederick refused. Although Manuel now formed an allegiance with the rebellious Norman barons, the city of Genoa, and the Pope, Adrian still would not accept the Byzantine offer of help against William I of Sicily.
After William had brought his crisis to an end, he was able to force the Pope to sign the Concordat of Benevento in by which Adrian gave William Sicily and the Norman principalities on the mainland as far north as Naples and Capua and granted him special rights for the Sicilian church.
This new treaty was in violation of the Treaty of Constance. A letter from the Pope, which was translated in an inflammatory manner by the imperial chancellor Rainald of Dasselcaused a critical argument between the papal delegation and the German princes over whether or not the empire was dependent upon the papacy.
Adrian explained later that he meant the word beneficium, which had caused all the trouble, to mean benefit and not fief. Attempt to regain imperial rights. Inafter Frederick had solved several decisive domestic problems see belowhe began his second campaign in Italy, seeking the complete restoration of the imperial rights.
After laying siege to and conquering Milanwhich had attempted to oppose him, Frederick opened the Diet of Roncaglia. The goal of this Diet was to define and guarantee the rights of the emperor, which would bring the empire an estimated 30, pounds of silver per year.
Frederick attempted, beginning in and especially afternot only to achieve the granting of these rights but also to put a systematic financial administration into effect.
His goal was to reduce imperial Italy to a system of well-controlled castles, palaces, and cities, with the self-government of the cities controlled by imperial officials. What the Emperor saw as a restoration of the imperial rights, however, was considered by the cities as a curtailment of their freedom.
A portion of the Italian money went to the German princes; this enabled Frederick to win their support without making too many political concessions to them in Germany. The ecclesiastical princes of the empire, however, still had to render full service for Italy; the archbishopric of Mainz suffered severe financial losses because Archbishop Christian was active for a long time in Italy as imperial legate.
The Italian taxes allowed Frederick to enlist mercenaries Brabantini in order to free himself militarily, to a certain extent, from the fief holders. The Pope, as well as the cities, felt threatened by a tightly organized imperial state in Italy.
Alexander, supported by many cardinals, was also immediately recognized by William of Sicily as the true pope. Alexander III, one of the greatest lawyers of the church, wanted to found a papacy that would be independent of the Emperor; he excommunicated Frederick in John of Salisbury asked at that time: Alexander attempted to bring Frederick back into the church but with no success.
In Milan was destroyed by Frederick. Rainald of Dassel died in Rome at this time, causing a change in the imperial strategy. In his fifth Italian campaign Frederick did not defeat the Lombards militarily, but they were forced to subject themselves to him in the Armistice of Montebello.RIBBENTROP AND MOLOTOV MEETING OF NOVEMBER 12, Memorandum of the Conversation Between the Reich Foreign Minister and the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the U.S.S.R.
and People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, V. M. Molotov, in the Presence of the Deputy People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, . The Zionists and others presented their case to the Paris Peace conference.
Ultimately, the British plan was adopted. The main issues taken into account were division of rights between Britain and France, rather than the views of the inhabitants.
The Zionists and others presented their case to the Paris Peace conference. Ultimately, the British plan was adopted. The main issues taken into account were division of rights between Britain and France, rather than the views of the inhabitants.
Frederick I: Frederick I, duke of Swabia (as Frederick III, –90) and German king and Holy Roman emperor (–90), who challenged papal authority and sought to establish German predominance in western Europe. He engaged in a long struggle with the cities of northern Italy (–83), sending six major.
Spanish-American War, (), conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S.
acquisition of territories in . Spanish-American War, (), conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America.